Difference between revisions of "Barium azide"

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Latest revision as of 20:51, 8 February 2020

Barium azide
Names
IUPAC name
Barium azide
Other names
Barium diazide
Barium dinitride
Barium(II) azide
Properties
BaN6
Ba(N3)2
Molar mass 221.37 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor Odorless
Density 2.936 g/cm3
Melting point 126 °C (259 °F; 399 K)
Boiling point 160 °C (320 °F; 433 K) (detonation starts in the range of 160-225 °C)
11.5 g/100 ml (0 °C)
14.98 g/100ml (15.7 °C)
15.36 g/100ml (20.0 °C)
22.73 g/100ml (52.1 °C)
24.75 g/100ml (70.0 °C)
Solubility Reacts with acids
Insoluble in acetone, diethyl ether, CCl4, toluene
Solubility in ethanol 0.017 g/100 ml (16 °C)
Vapor pressure ~0 mmHg
Hazards
Safety data sheet None
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Barium azide is an inorganic azide with the formula Ba(N3)2. Like most azides, it is explosive, though less sensitive to mechanical shock than lead(II) azide.

Properties

Chemical

Barium azide can be used to make azides of lithium, magnesium, potassium, rubidium, sodium and zinc via substitution with their respective sulfates.

Thermal decomposition of barium azide in an inert atmosphere yields very pure nitrogen gas, leaving behind very pure barium nitride or barium metal powder, both highly reactive in powdered form.

Ba(N3)2 → Ba + 3 N2
3 Ba(N3)2 → Ba3N2 + 8 N2

Physical

Barium azide is a white solid, soluble in water.

Explosive

Barium azide is a shock-sensitive explosive, though compared to most azides it's less sensitive. Likewise, it's relatively insensitive to impact. Wet barium azide is far less sensitive than dry barium azide. When ignited in air, it burns with a green flame and may explode if the temperature is high enough.

Availability

Barium azide is not sold since it's a sensitive explosive material. It has to be made in situ.

Preparation

Barium azide can be prepared by neutralizing barium carbonate or hydroxide with hydrazoic acid. This route is dangerous, due to the high toxicity and volatility of hydrazoic acid.

A safer route involves adding barium chloride to sodium azide and precipitate out the NaCl. The solution is further purified to obtain pure barium azide.

Projects

  • Make almost any azide

Handling

Safety

Barium azide, like most azides is highly poisonous and explosive. Handle it with proper protection.

Storage

Should be stored as wet solid, usually at 50%, and not for long periods of time.

Disposal

Can be destroyed using acidified sodium nitrite aka nitrous acid.

The resulting barium salts are treated to barium sulfate using sodium or ammonium sulfate.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads