Damp crystals of ammonium chlorate
| IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||101.486 g/mol|
|Melting point||380 °C (716 °F; 653 K) (decomposes)|
|28.7 g/100 ml (20 °C)|
|Solubility||Slightly soluble in ethanol|
|Safety data sheet||None|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Ammonium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4ClO3.
Ammonium chlorate is a very unstable oxidizer and will decompose, sometimes violently, at room temperature. On heating, ammonium chlorate decomposes at about 102 °C, with liberation of nitrogen, HCl and oxygen.
- 2 NH4ClO3 → N2 + 3 H2O + 2 HCl + 3/2 O2
This results from the mixture of the reducing ammonium cation and the oxidizing chlorate anion. Even solutions are known to be unstable, especially in concentrated form.
Ammonium chlorate is a white solid, soluble in water. It has no odor.
Ammonium chlorate is very sensitive to friction and shock and may explode in concentrated form.
Ammonium chlorate is not sold by any supplier.
Can be obtained by neutralizing chloric acid with either aq. ammonia or ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate, or by precipitating barium, strontium or calcium chlorates with ammonium carbonate or ammonium sulfate, producing the respective carbonate or sulfate precipitate and an ammonium chlorate solution.
Alternatively, mixing conc. solutions of ammonium nitrate and sodium chlorate is also an attractive route, as both precursors are very soluble in water, while ammonium chlorate is less soluble.
- Chemical demonstration
Ammonium chlorate is a very unstable oxidizer and will decompose, sometimes violently, at room temperature in solid form and sometimes even in solution.
Ammonium chlorate cannot be safely stored and must be used as soon as it's prepared.
Controlled ignition in small batches is sufficient.
- Stadion, F.; Annalen der Physik (Weinheim, Germany); vol. 52; (1816); p. 210