| IUPAC name
| Systematic IUPAC name
| Other names
|Density||1.014 g/cm3 (15 °C)|
|Melting point||2 °C (36 °F; 275 K)|
|Boiling point||114 °C (237 °F; 387 K)|
|Solubility|| Reacts with acids, halogens, hydrogen peroxide|
Soluble in methanol, ethanol, propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohol
|Vapor pressure||1 kP (at 30.7 °C)|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
|Flash point||52 °C (125.6 °F; 325 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
|59–60 mg/kg (oral in rats, mice)|
LC50 (Median concentration)
| 260 ppm (rat, 4 hr)|
630 ppm (rat, 1 hr)
570 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
252 ppm (mouse, 4 hr)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula N2H4 or H2N-NH2. It is a toxic compound used as rocket fuel.
- N2H4 + H2SO4 → N2H5HSO4
Hydrazine is a clear fuming oily liquid, with a toxic strong ammonia like odor. It is miscible with water, and soluble in several solvents, like methanol or ethanol. Hydrazine boils at 114 °C and melts at 2 °C.
Anhydrous hydrazine is sold by chemical suppliers, though it's not easily available to the amateur chemist due to its hazards.
Anhydrous hydrazine can be made by reacting hydrazine sulfate with a strong base, filter the reaction product and drying the resulting condensate. Avoid distilling the resulting hydrazine at atmospheric conditions and pressure, as it may explode. Distillation can be done in an inert atmosphere, but any trace of air may lead to an explosion.
- Make hydrazine sulfate
- Make sodium azide
- Make hydrazoic acid (DANGEROUS!)
- Make nickel hydrazine nitrate
- Reducing agent
- Rocket fuel
Free hydrazine is extremely toxic and should only be handled with proper protection. It will slowly decompose to release nitrogen and ammonia. As a solution is less dangerous, though it's fumes are still very toxic. It may explode during its distillation in the presence of oxygen, due to its low autoignition point, so it's best to perform the distillation in an oxygen-free environment.
Due to these risks, the safest way to handle hydrazine is in the sulfate form.
While it can be stored in sealed or closed containers, the best and safest way to store hydrazine is in salt form, most often as the sulfate form. It can be easily liberated from this form with an alkali when or if needed.
Hydrazine will slowly leach silica from glass, so avoid storing it in glass containers. Type 304L and 347 stainless steel containers are generally used for storing hydrazine, though high density polyethylene is also suitable.
Hydrazine can be neutralized with a diluted solution of calcium hypochlorite or another oxidizer. Avoid using strong or concentrated oxidizers, like conc. hydrogen peroxide, as this will result in a steam explosion.