TiCl4 drawn out using a syringe
| IUPAC names
| Systematic IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||189.679 g/mol|
|Appearance||Colorless fuming liquid|
|Odor||Penetrating acidic odor|
|Melting point||−24.1 °C (−11.4 °F; 249.1 K)|
|Boiling point||136.4 °C (277.5 °F; 409.5 K)|
|Solubility||Soluble in ethanol, HCl|
|Vapor pressure||1.3 kPa (20 °C)|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Titanium(IV) chloride, or more commonly titanium tetrachloride, is a chemical compound with the formulaTiCl4.
- TiCl4 + 2 H2O → TiO2 + 4 HCl
Titanium(IV) chloride is a colorless fuming liquid, with a string pungent acidic odor.
Titanium(IV) chloride is sold by chemical suppliers, though it's not easy for the amateur chemist to acquire it.
TiCl4 is produced by the chloride process, which involves the reduction of titanium oxide ores, typically ilmenite (FeTiO3) or perovskite (CaTiO3) with carbon under flowing chlorine at 900 °C. Impurities are removed by fractional distillation.
- 2 FeTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C → 2 TiCl4 + 2 FeCl3 + 6 CO
- 2 CaTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C → 2 TiCl4 + 3 CaCl2 + 6 CO
- CaCl2 + 2 TiO2 → CaTiO3 + TiCl4
- 4 Na2S2O7 + 4 NaCl + TiO2 → 2 Na2SO4 + TiCl4
Reducing titanium dioxide with carbon will give titanium carbide which reacts more readily with chlorine gas, giving titanium tetrachloride.
Metallic titanium will also react with chlorine above 350 °C, best if the titanium metal is in sponge form.
- Make metallic titanium
- Make organotitanium compounds
- Synthesis of Ziegler–Natta catalyst
Titanium tetrachloride is highly corrosive and dangerous. Proper protection must be worn when handling the compound.
Titanium tetrachloride must be kept in air-tight containers. Schlenk flasks can be used, though most often TiCl4 is kept in dark amber bottles fitted with a silicon rubber septum.
Can be safely neutralized by slowly adding it in a large volume of a diluted alkaline solution.