|Name, symbol||Gallium, Ga|
|Gallium in the periodic table|
|Standard atomic weight (Ar)||69.723(1)|
|Group, block||(boron group); p-block|
|Electron configuration||[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1|
|2, 8, 18, 3|
|Melting point||302.9146 K (29.7646 °C, 85.5763 °F)|
|Boiling point||2673 K (2400 °C, 4352 °F)|
|Density near r.t.||5.91 g/cm3|
|when liquid, at||6.095 g/cm3|
|Heat of fusion||5.59 kJ/mol|
|Heat of||256 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||25.86 J/(mol·K)|
|Oxidation states||3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −4, −5(an amphoteric oxide)|
|Electronegativity||Pauling scale: 1.81|
1st: 578.8 kJ/mol |
2nd: 1979.3 kJ/mol
3rd: 2963 kJ/mol
|Atomic radius||empirical: 135 pm|
|Covalent radius||122±3 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||187 pm|
|Speed of sound thin rod||2740 m/s (at 20 °C)|
|Thermal expansion||18 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)|
|Thermal conductivity||40.6 W/(m·K)|
|Electrical resistivity||2.7·10-7 Ω·m (at 20 °C)|
|Young's modulus||9.8 GPa|
|Brinell hardness||56.8–68.7 MPa|
|CAS Registry Number||7440-55-3|
|Naming||After Gallia (Latin for: France), homeland of the discoverer|
|Prediction||Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)|
|Discovery and first isolation||Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)|
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gallium is attacked by acids and free halogens, but does not react with air or water at room temperature, only at high temperatures, producing gallium(III) oxide Ga2O3. If Ga2O3 is reduced with elemental gallium in vacuum at 500-700 °C, it will yield the dark brown gallium(I) oxide, Ga2O.
- Ga2O3 + 4 Ga → 3 Ga2O
Gallium is a soft silvery metal, brittle at low temperatures. If it is held in the human hand long enough, gallium will melt, since its melting point is 29.76 °C. Gallium expands by 3.1% when it solidifies, and therefore storage in either glass or metal containers should be avoided. Liquid gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point/freezing point. Unlike mercury, liquid gallium wets glass and skin, making it mechanically more difficult to handle. For this reason, as well as the metal contamination and freezing-expansion problems, samples of gallium metal are usually supplied in polyethylene packets within other containers.
LED's contain a minute amount of gallium nitride, but the quantity is too small to be of importance. Certain low melting alloys contain gallium.
The best source of metallic gallium is GalliumSource, that sells gallium samples, a 100 g sample costs around 65$, though the price does not include shipping. For international shipping, the price is higher and the shipping is included in the price.
Gallium can be prepared by reducing its halides.
- Inducing embrittlement in susceptible metals, such as aluminium
- Gallium nitride synthesis
- Gallium spoon prank
- Gallium beating heart
- Hydrogen generation
Pure gallium has little toxicity, but its tendency to wet most materials can be frustrating, so gloves should be worn when handling the pure metal, especially since it will melt in the hand if held too long. Some of its compounds have been shown to cause renal problems in tested animals. Bulk gallium nitride has been shown to be non-toxic and even bio-compatible.
Because gallium tends to expand when it solidifies, it's best stored in thick polyethylene bottles or if it's a small sample, in top lid boxes.
Gallium is best recycled, when possible.