Reagent bottle

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Reagent bottles or storage bottles are containers made from glass, plastic or rarely metal used for storing chemical reagents.

General

Storage bottles come in various sizes, the most common being 10 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml, 100 ml, 250 ml, 500 ml, 1000 ml (1 liter), 2000 ml (2 liter), 2500 ml (2.5 liter), 4000 ml (4 l) and 5000 ml (5 liter). Larger bottles exist, but are less commonly used, as they are harder to handle properly. For storing large volumes of liquid, kegs or barrels tend to be more often used, while bags are sometimes employed for bulk solid materials.

Glass bottles intended for liquids tend to be screwed and present a teflon seal, while the ones for powders tend to be either glass with plastic lid or ground glass. For plastic they are both screwed, while metal is rarely screwed due to corrosion issues, though aluminium bottles do exist. Metal bottles tend to have the lid made from a different material, usually plastic (PE).

Some transparent bottles tend to be graduated, like this, but this is less common with amber bottles. Plastic containers have no graduations, nor do metal ones. However most bottles have markings for the volume of liquid they're designed to store.

A reagent bottle should resist chemical attack, have a good lid, have good mechanical and thermal resistance, should be sturdy and easy to handle. The lid should be made of the same material the bottle is made of (though in case of glass bottles this only works for ground glass) or inert plastic.

Classification

Glass

Most common type of bottle, comes in two types: transparent and amber. The amber glass bottle is commonly used for storing organic solvents, though mineral acids are also usually stored in such bottles. Transparent bottles tend to be used mostly for non-volatile liquids and light-resistant compounds. Solvent bottles are always screwed.

Glass bottles used for storing corrosive solids are similar in aspect, though their opening is generally wider and some have a jar-like appearance.

Plastic

Plastic containers tend to be made of PE or rarely PTFE and are generally suited for storing salts or solid reagents with little reactivity, or which do not attack plastic. Thick all-PTFE or all-PE bottles are used for storing hydrofluoric acid.

Plastic containers will turn brittle if exposed to strong sunlight or other UV light source, so it's best to keep them away from light.

Metal

Apart from gas cylinders, metal containers are rarely used for storing reagents as most tend to corrode it or accelerate the corrosion. Metal kegs are sometimes used for shipping and storing large amounts of solvents. Stainless steel containers can be used for storing organic compounds.

Other

Ceramic jars are less commonly used for storing reagents, but are sometimes encountered.

Wooden kegs are often used for storing energetic materials, such as black powder or smokeless powder as they offer spark-free conditions. Hygroscopic materials are incompatible with wooden containers.

Paper bags are generally used for storing insoluble materials such as Portland cement, gypsum, sand or charcoal.

Common types

  • Apothecary bottle
  • Boston round bottle (aka Winchester bottle)
  • Glass stoppered bottle
  • Narrow neck reagent bottle

Availability and reusing

Reagent bottles can be purchased online. Some types can be found in pharmacies or medical supply stores.

Hardware stores usually sell various plastic or glass jars for storing food, though some have questionable quality. Metal containers used for storing tea, coffee or even sugar or spices however are almost always of good quality, especially the stainless steel variety. SS coffee tin cans like this model are cheap and offer a good air-tight storage medium and good corrosion resistance, making it suitable for storing various mild corrosive and smelly reagents.

Everyday glass, plastic or metal containers such as jars can be used for storing reagents, as long as they don't attack the material the container is made from. Glass with metal caps are unsuitable for storing corrosive chemicals, especially volatile ones, like acids, as the metal lid will rust.

SpecialtyBottle is one good seller, with good quality bottles.

Vitamin and supplement bottles are also a good choice, as they're sturdy, have acceptable chemical resistance and are readily available. Large supplement bottles are ideal for storing bulk chemicals.

Bottles used for storing oil and creams, such as this one are the same model used by some chemical suppliers for storing reagents and as such can be safely used for storing chemicals.

Paint cans are excellent for storing air or water sensitive chemicals, though they are prone to rusting if not properly coated. Just make sure you clean them properly before reuse. All-metal instant coffee cans, like this one are also suitable for storing various reagents, and since they provide a relative effective air seal, they can be used for storing water-sensitive chemicals, such as calcium carbide, though if the lid is improperly opened, it will deform and may not seal properly after many uses.

Tips

  • If you're reusing reagent bottles, make sure you wash and dry them properly, to avoid contaminating the new substance you're adding.
  • If you're reusing bottles that have previously stored food, make sure you remove all the previous labels, to avoid confusion.
  • A very important safety rule is never storing chemicals in any containers resembling those of food products or medical drugs. If you absolutely must use food, drink or internal medicine bottles, modify them in a such way that they won't be confused for food items or drugs. For example, you may completely remove the label from a bottle and replace it with a clearly legible chemical label with all required warnings such as "Corrosive!" or "Toxic!". Write them in a way that even a child would understand, no hazard diamond mumbo jumbo, only clear words and exclamation marks. The skull and crossbones symbol is good, too: it takes a very unwise mind to think that is pirate rum.
    • Bottles from topical or intravenous medicines are, however, safe because the original contents of the bottle aren't intended for swallowing, either, and the container itself usually doesn't look "edible". Bottles from disinfectant ethanol or saline solution are generally good for use in the lab.

See also

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads