Calcium sulfate is a virtually insoluble inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4. It is commonly formed as a by-product of reactions.
A very exothermic thermite reaction occurs with aluminium powder, which is used to 'heat boost' reactions such as a titanium dioxide thermite, where the extra heat is needed to reduce the oxide all the way to titanium metal
Double displacement reactions often are chosen to form calcium sulfate as the precipitation of the solid not only drives the reaction but makes the two formed chemicals easy to separate by simply filtering off the sulfate:
- Ca(OCl)2 + K2SO4 → CaSO4 + 2 KOCl
It is generally considered to be insoluble, but does have a very low solubility of 0.21g/100ml @20 degrees (Wikipedia)
Calcium sulfate exists in three hydrates, a dihydrate, a hemihydrate and a anhydrous form. Over 100 degrees the hemihydrate is formed and it looses water to form the anhydrous over 180 degrees Celsius. These two forms will slowly absorb water at room temperature to revert back to the dihydrate.
The hemihydrate is easily available as 'plaster of Paris' in hardware stores. The dihydrate is heavily used as 'drywall', a calcium sulfate construction material. Chalk sticks tend to contain calcium sulfate rather than calcium carbonate (a chalk is not made from chalk, who knew), though some formulas may contain traces of calcium carbonate and in many locations it can be found in the ground as the mineral gypsum.
- Calcium sulfate thermite, from which elemental calcium can be obtained.
- Sulfur dioxide generation
- Dry acetone
Anhydrous calcium sulfate will release large amounts of heat if mixed with water.
Should be stored in closed containers, away from moisture.
Unless it's contaminated with heavy metals or sodium ions, calcium sulfate can be safely dumped in the ground or trash. Do not pour it down the drain as it may clog the pipes.