Sulfur dichloride

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Sulfur dichloride
Sulfur dichloride.JPG
Photo by sciencemadness user len1
Names
IUPAC names
Sulfur dichloride
Sulfur(II) chloride
Dichlorosulfane
Other names
Chlorine sulfide
Chloro thiohypochlorite
Dichlorosulfide
Sulphur chloride
Properties
SCl2
Molar mass 102.97 g/mol
Appearance Red fuming liquid
Odor Pungent
Density 1.621 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)
Melting point −121.0 °C (−185.8 °F; 152.2 K)
Boiling point 59 °C (138 °F; 332 K)
Reacts
Solubility Soluble in glacial acetic acid, benzene, bromine, CCl4, chloroethane, cyclohexane, disulfur dichloride, hexane, phosgene
Insoluble in liq. SO2
Vapor pressure 162 mmHg (at 20 °C)
Thermochemistry
493.9 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet CPCB
Flash point 118 °C
Related compounds
Related compounds
Disulfur dichloride
Thionyl chloride
Sulfuryl chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Sulfur dichloride (SCl2) is a foul smelling red liquid created through the reaction of sulfur and chlorine.

Properties

Chemical

Disulfur dichloride reacts with water to form sulfur dioxide and hydrochloric acid, so an open container will produce thick white fumes as it reacts with moisture in the air. Sulfur dichloride slowly evolves chlorine, leaving disulfur dichloride unless the container can maintain a small positive pressure of chlorine.

Sulfur chlorides can be used to produce thionyl chloride.

Physical

SCl2 has a highly unpleasant odour, as well as producing HCl and SO2 which are also highly unpleasant to breathe in.

It is a bright red liquid with viscosity similar to water.

Availability

Due to air instability and pressure build-up from decomposition to the monochloride,sulfur dichloride is generally not avaliable to buy.

Chlorine is produced through TCCA + HCl and dried over CaCl2 before being passed into the molten sulfur

Preparation

SCl2 distills over as chlorine is passed over molten sulfur. This reaction may also produce disulfur dichloride.

Both sulfur and chlorine are common chemicals in a home laboratory but the synthesis of sulfur dichloride is complicated as it requires simultaneous distillation while gassing the sulfur with the chlorine which requires moderately complicated glassware such as two necked flasks or a very well improvised setup.

An older method involves the reaction of sulfuryl chloride (which can be made by reacting dry sulfur dioxide and chlorine gas) with anhydrous zinc sulfide, in the presence of aluminium chloride.[1]

Projects

Handling

Safety

Sulfur dichloride is extremely toxic and corrosive and proper protection must be worn when working with the compound. Work should be performed in a fumehood.

Storage

SCl2 should be stored in a sealed container, in a dry cold place. As it slowly decomposes over time, it's best to open the bottle from time to time to release the pressure.

Disposal

Reaction with water destroys the compound, and this can be effective if done outside or in an area capable of safely removing the sulfur dioxide. Aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions can also be used. Calcium hydroxide suspension is also a good choice.

See also

References

  1. Ruff, O.; Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Ges.; vol. 34; (1901); p. 1749 - 1758

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