Difference between revisions of "Nitrobenzene"

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*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=12225 destruction of nitrobenzene]
 
*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=12225 destruction of nitrobenzene]
 
*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=14149 Yellow impurity in nitrobenzene?]
 
*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=14149 Yellow impurity in nitrobenzene?]
 +
*[http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=153418 Synthesizing Nitrobenzene [Video]]
  
 
[[Category:Organic compounds]]
 
[[Category:Organic compounds]]

Latest revision as of 16:42, 4 September 2019

Nitrobenzene
Names
IUPAC name
Nitrobenzene
Other names
Mononitrobenzene
Nitrobenzol
Oil of mirbane
Properties
C6H5NO2
Molar mass 123.06 g/mol
Appearance Yellowish, oily liquid
Odor Pungent, almond or paste shoe polish-like
Density 1.199 g/cm3
Melting point 5.7 °C (42.3 °F; 278.8 K)
Boiling point 210.9 °C (411.6 °F; 484.0 K)
0.19 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Solubility Very soluble in acetone, benzene diethyl ether, ethanol, toluene
Slightly soluble in carbon tetrachloride
Vapor pressure 0.3 mmHg (25 °C)
Hazards
Safety data sheet AlfaAesar
Flash point 88 °C
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
780 mg/kg (rat, oral)
600 mg/kg (rat, oral)
590 mg/kg (mouse, oral)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Nitrobenzene or mononitrobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NO2.

Properties

Chemical

Nitrobenzene can be reduced to aniline.

Physical

Nitrobenzene is a yellowish liquid, with a smell reminiscent of almonds.

Availability

Nitrobenzene used to be more available in the past, but in recent years it has been phased out from many places due to it's high toxicity and it's difficult to acquire.

Preparation

Nitrobenzene is prepared by nitration of benzene, using a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and nitric acid, also known as nitrating mixture. Water is used as solvent. The production of nitrobenzene is one of the most dangerous processes conducted in the chemistry because of the exothermicity of the reaction (ΔH = −117 kJ/mol).

Projects

  • Make trinitrobenzene
  • Make aniline
  • Make paracetamol

Handling

Safety

Nitrobenzene is very toxic. Proper protection should be worn when working with the compound.

Storage

Nitrobenzene should be kept in closed glass bottles, marked with a clear label and hazard symbols, in a hazardous chemical locker.

Disposal

Nitrobenzene is best neutralized by slowly adding it in an oxidizing solution, such as piranha solution or Fenton's reagent, outside or in a fumehood.

Burning it releases lots of soot and unburnt benzene derivatives.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads