Ammonium sulfate

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Ammonium sulfate
Ammonium sulfate bottle sample.jpg
Ammonium sulfate bottle and sample.
Names
IUPAC name
Ammonium tetraoxosulfate (VI)
Other names
Ammonium sulfate
Ammonium sulphate
Diammonium sulfate
Diazanium sulfate
Actamaster
Dolamin
Mascagnite
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt
Properties
(NH4)2SO4
Molar mass 132.14 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor Odorless
Density 1.769 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)
Melting point 235 to 280 °C (455 to 536 °F; 508 to 553 K) (decomposes)
Boiling point Decomposes
70.6 g/100 ml (0 °C)
74.4 g/100 ml (20 °C)
76.4 g/100 ml(25 °C)
103.8 g/100 ml (100 °C)
Solubility Insoluble in acetone, diethyl ether and ethanol
Vapor pressure 14 mm Hg (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 5.5
Hazards
Safety data sheet Fisher Scientific
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
2840 mg/kg, rat (oral)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Ammonium bisulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Ammonium sulfate (IUPAC name ammonium tetraoxosulfate (VI)) or ammonium sulphate, is an inorganic salt with the formula (NH4)2SO4, commonly used as a fertilizer.

Properties

Chemical

When ammonium sulfate is mixed with a soluble calcium salt, calcium sulfate precipitates.

(NH4)2SO4 + CaCl2 → 2 NH4Cl + CaSO4
(NH4)2SO4 + Ca(NO3)2 → 2 NH4NO3 + CaSO4
(NH4)2SO4 + Ca(CH3COO)2 → 2 CH3COONH4 + CaSO4

Physical

Ammonium sulfate is a white solid, soluble in water and insoluble in organic solvents. It is odorless and has a saline taste. It's density is 1.769 g/cm3 at 20 °C.

Availability

Ammonium sulfate is sometimes available as a fertilizer, either pure or mixed with other additives.

Some chimney cleaning powders contain a mixture of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and other additives. Ammonium sulfate can be extracted from the mixture via recrystallization from water.

Lastly it can be bought from chemical suppliers and online.

Preparation

Ammonium sulfate can be prepared by reacting sulfuric acid with an excess of ammonia or ammonium bicarbonate/carbonate:

H2SO4 + 2 NH3(aq) → (NH4)2SO4(aq)
H2SO4 + 2 NH4HCO3 → (NH4)2SO4 + 2 H2O + 2 CO2
H2SO4 + (NH4)2CO3 → (NH4)2SO4 + H2O + CO2

Projects

  • Salt out proteins
  • Make Mohr's salt (ammonium iron(II) sulfate)
  • Make ammonium nitrate

Handling

Safety

Ammonium sulfate poses little toxicity and no special protective equipment is required when handling it.

Storage

Should be kept closed bottles or bags.

Disposal

No special disposal is required. Discard it as you wish.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads