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Lithium hydroxide sample and original bottle.
| IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass|| 23.95 g/mol (anhydrous)|
41.96 g/mol (monohydrate)
|Appearance||White hygroscopic solid|
|Density|| 1.46 g/cm3 (anhydrous)|
1.51 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
|Melting point||462 °C (864 °F; 735 K)|
|Boiling point||924 °C (1,695 °F; 1,197 K) (decomposition)|
12.7 g/100 ml (0 °C)
12.8 g/100 ml (20 °C)
17.5 g/100 ml (100 °C)
2.3 g/100 ml (10 °C)
26.8 g/100 ml (80 °C)
|Solubility|| Soluble in methanol|
Slightly soluble in ethanol
|Solubility in methanol|| anhydrous:|
9.76 g/100 g (20 °C)
13.69 g/100 g (20 °C)
|Solubility in ethanol|| anhydrous:|
2.36 g/100 g (20 °C)
2.18 g/100 g (20 °C)
|Solubility in isopropanol|| anhydrous:|
0 g/100 g (20 °C)
0.11 g/100 g (20 °C)
|Vapor pressure||~0 mmHg|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich (monohydrate)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
|210 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
| Sodium hydroxide|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Lithium hydroxide is a solid white inorganic compound, with the chemical formula LiOH.
- 2 LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O
Because of its low density and it's ability to absorb it's weight of carbon dioxide, anhydrous lithium hydroxide is used as a chemical scrubber on submarines and space vehicles.
Lithium hydroxide is a a white hygroscopic solid. It is the weakest base among alkali metal hydroxides, however, it is still a strong base. The density of anhydrous lithium hydroxide is 1.46 g/cm3 and 1.51 g/cm3 for the monohydrate form. It is soluble in water and slightly less in ethanol. Lithium hydroxide melts at 462 °C and decomposes at 924 °C.
Lithium hydroxide is sold by chemical suppliers.
Corroded lithium batteries contain a mixture of lithium oxide, lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate. Adding a solution of calcium hydroxide will convert the carbonate to hydroxide. Filter the suspension to remove the calcium carbonate then gently heat the filtrate solution to remove excess water.
- Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3
Lithium oxide will slowly convert to lithium hydroxide in moist air.
- 2 Li2O + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH
The presence of carbon dioxide in moist air will result in lithium carbonate.
Another way is to simply add lithium metal extracted from lithium batteries in water.
- 2 Li + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH + H2
However this method consumes the expensive metal.
- Make lithium chloride
- Make lithium salts
Lithium hydroxide is corrosive to all tissues and it must be handled with proper protection for alkali hydroxides.
In closed thick PE bottles, away from air, corrosive vapors and moisture.
Best to try to recycle it.