Lithium hydroxide

From Sciencemadness Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Lithium hydroxide
Names
IUPAC name
Lithium hydroxide
Other names
Lithine
Properties
Molar mass 23.95 g/mol (anhydrous)
41.96 g/mol (monohydrate)
Appearance White hygroscopic solid
Density 1.46 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.51 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
Melting point 462 °C (864 °F; 735 K)
Boiling point 924 °C (1,695 °F; 1,197 K) (decomposition)
Hazards
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
210 mg/kg (oral, rat)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Sodium hydroxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Lithium hydroxide is a solid white inorganic compound, with the chemical formula LiOH.

Properties

Chemical

Lithium hydroxide is corrosive and will slowly attack glass in aqueous solution. It will react with carbon dioxide from air to form lithium carbonate.

2 LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O

Because of its low density and it's ability to absorb it's weight of carbon dioxide, anhydrous lithium hydroxide is used as a chemical scrubber on submarines and space vehicles.

Physical

Lithium hydroxide is a a white hygroscopic solid. It is the weakest base among alkali metal hydroxides, however, it is still a strong base. The density of anhydrous lithium hydroxide is 1.46 g/cm3 and 1.51 g/cm3 for the monohydrate form. It is soluble in water and slightly less in ethanol. Lithium hydroxide melts at 462 °C and decomposes at 924 °C.

Availability

Corroded lithium batteries contain a mixture of lithium oxide, lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate. Adding a solution of calcium hydroxide will convert the carbonate to hydroxide.

Lithium hydroxide is sold by chemical suppliers.

Preparation

Lithium hydroxide can be prepared by mixing two solutions of lithium carbonate and calcium hydroxide.

Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3

Lithium oxide will slowly convert to lithium hydroxide in moist air.

2 Li2O + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH

The presence of carbon dioxide in moist air will result in lithium carbonate.

Another way is to simply add lithium metal extracted from lithium batteries in water.

2 Li + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH + H2

However this method consumes the expensive metal.

Projects

  • Make lithium chloride

Handling

Safety

Lithium hydroxide is corrosive to all tissues and it must be handled with proper protection for alkali hydroxides.

Storage

In closed thick PE bottles, away from corrosive vapors and moisture.

Disposal

Best to try to recycle it.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads