| IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||123.1094 g/mol|
|Melting point||237 °C (459 °F; 510 K)|
|1.8 g/100 ml (20 °C)|
|Solubility|| Soluble in DMSO|
Slightly soluble in diethyl ether, ethanol
Insoluble in lipids
|Vapor pressure||5.7·10-6 mmHg °C|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
|Flash point||193 °C|
| Dipicolinic acid|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NO2. It is an important essential human nutrient.
Decarboxylation of niacin gives pyridine
- C6H5NO2 → C5H5N + CO2
Copper chromite is used as a catalyst.
Niacin is a white solid, slightly soluble in water, but more so in organic solvents.
Niacin can be easily found in various Vitamin B3 supplements. To extract it, simply crush the niacin in a mortar or better in a coffee grinder. Add sodium hydroxide to convert it into the more soluble sodium nicotinate, and vacuum filter the solution. Convert it back to nicotinic acid by carefully adding hydrochloric acid. Since niacin is poorly soluble in water, it will precipitate out of the solution. The resulting precipitate is filtered, however, this is difficult to do, as niacin water suspensions are non-Newtonian fluids, similar to starch and water mixtures. The resulting precipitate should be air-dried, as vacuum drying doesn't work very well. The yield from this method is about 50-70%. Using an organic solvent will improve the yield.
Niacin however is best purchased in bulk, rather than extracted from pills. It can be purchased online relatively cheap.
Niacin is best purchased than prepared.
- Make pyridine
- Make arecoline
Niacin is edible, but avoid consuming lab-grade nicotinic acid.
Niacin should be stored in closed bottles.
No special disposal is required. Discard it as you wish.