Succinic acid sample and original bottle.
| IUPAC name
| Preferred IUPAC name
| Other names
Spirit of amber
|Molar mass||118.09 g/mol|
|Density||1.572 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)|
|Melting point||184 °C (363 °F; 457 K)|
|Boiling point||235 °C (455 °F; 508 K)|
|8.32 g/100 ml (25 °C)|
|Solubility|| Soluble in acetone, diethyl ether, ethanol, methanol|
Slightly soluble in dimethylformamide
Insoluble in benzene, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride, petroleum ether, toluene
|Solubility in acetone||2.7 g 100/ml|
|Solubility in chloroform||0.02 g/100 ml|
|Solubility in diethyl ether||0.88 g/100 ml|
|Solubility in ethanol||5.4 g/100 ml|
|Solubility in glycerol||5 g/100 ml|
|Vapor pressure||1.91·10-7 mmHg (25 °C)|
|Acidity (pKa)|| pKa1 = 4.2|
pKa2 = 5.6
|Safety data sheet||FisherSci|
|Flash point|| 160 °C (open cup)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
|2,260 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Succinic acid is an organic compound, a dicarboxylic acid with chemical formula (CH2)2(COOH)2. The name derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber, from which the acid may be obtained.
Succinic acid will react with sodium carbonate in aqueous solution to give sodium succinate.
Succinic acid can be bought from various wine-making suppliers. It is also sold as plant growth stimulator, though in this form it's very expensive.
Lastly it can be bought from chemical suppliers and online.
Succinic acid was historically obtained from the distillation of amber.
Succinic acid can be obtained from the fermentation of wines, along with acetic acid.
A more convenient route involves the partial hydrogenation of maleic acid.
Oxidation of 1,4-butanediol will yield succinic acid.
Carbonylation of ethylene glycol will also yield succinic acid.
- Make polyesters
- Make fumaric acid
- Make succinic anhydride
- Synthesis of 1,4-butanediol
Succinic acid may be irritant and should be handled with care.
Succinic acid should be kept in closed bottles, away from volatile compounds.
No special disposal is required.