Ammonium chlorate

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Ammonium chlorate
Names
IUPAC name
Ammonium chlorate
Other names
Ammonium chlorate
Properties
NH4ClO3
Molar mass 101.486 g/mol
Appearance Colorless solid
Odor Odorless
Density 2.42 g/cm3
Melting point 380 °C (716 °F; 653 K) (decomposes)
Boiling point Decomposes
28.7 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Solubility Slightly soluble in ethanol
Hazards
Safety data sheet None
Related compounds
Related compounds
Ammonium perchlorate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Ammonium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4ClO3.

Properties

Chemical

Ammonium chlorate is a very unstable oxidizer and will decompose, sometimes violently, at room temperature. On heating, ammonium chlorate decomposes at about 102 °C, with liberation of nitrogen, HCl and oxygen.

2 NH4ClO3 → N2 + 3 H2O + 2 HCl + 3/2 O2

This results from the mixture of the reducing ammonium cation and the oxidizing chlorate anion. Even solutions are known to be unstable, especially in concentrated form.

Physical

Ammonium chlorate is a white solid, soluble in water. It has no odor.

Explosive

Ammonium chlorate is very sensitive to friction and shock and may explode in concentrated form.

Availability

Ammonium chlorate is not sold by any supplier.

Preparation

Can be obtained by neutralizing chloric acid with either aq. ammonia or ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate, or by precipitating barium, strontium or calcium chlorates with ammonium carbonate or ammonium sulfate, producing the respective carbonate or sulfate precipitate and an ammonium chlorate solution.

Alternatively, mixing conc. solutions of ammonium nitrate and sodium chlorate is also an attractive route, as both precursors are very soluble in water, while ammonium chlorate is less soluble.[1]

Addition of chlorine dioxide to an aq. solution of ammonia will give ammonium chlorate.[2]

Projects

  • Chemical demonstration

Handling

Safety

Ammonium chlorate is a very unstable oxidizer and will decompose, sometimes violently, at room temperature in solid form and sometimes even in solution.

Storage

Ammonium chlorate cannot be safely stored and must be used as soon as it's prepared.

Disposal

Controlled ignition in small batches is sufficient.

References

  1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_7YpDityLak
  2. Stadion, F.; Annalen der Physik (Weinheim, Germany); vol. 52; (1816); p. 210

Relevant Sciencemadness threads