Ammonium chloride

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Ammonium chloride
NH4Cl.jpg
Lab grown crystals of ammonium chloride from Crystal grower's collection.
Names
IUPAC name
Ammonium chloride
Systematic IUPAC name
Ammonium chloride
Other names
Sal ammoniac
Salmiac
Properties
NH4Cl
Molar mass 53.49 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Density 1.5274 g/cm3
Melting point 338 °C (640 °F; 611 K) (sublimes)
Boiling point 520 °C (968 °F; 793 K) (decomposition)
24.4 g/100 ml (−15 °C)
29.4 g/100 ml (0 °C)
38.3 g/100 ml (25 °C)
45.44 g/100 ml (40 °C)
74.08 g/100 ml (100 °C)
Solubility Soluble in alcohol, liq. ammonia, glycerol , hydrazine, methanol
Slightly soluble in acetone
Insoluble in diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, toluene, xylene
Solubility in acetic acid 0.067 g/100 g (16.6 °C)
Solubility in ethanol 0.6 g/100 ml (19 °C)
Solubility in glycerol 9.7 g/100 g
Solubility in methanol 3.2 g/100 g (17 °C)
3.35 g/100 g (19 °C)
3.54 g/100 g (25 °C)
Solubility in sulfur dioxide 0.009 g/100 g (0 °C)
0.0031 g/100 g (25 °C)
Thermochemistry
94.56 J·mol-1·K-1
−314.43 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1,650 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Ammonium perchlorate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It's white crystalline solid, highly soluble in water.Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic. Ammonium chloride occurs naturally as mineral Sal ammoniac which is commonly formed on burning coal dumps, due to condensation of coal-derived gases. It is also found around some types of volcanic vents. Ammonium chloride is mainly used as fertilizer and as flavouring agent in some types of liquorice.

Properties

Chemical

Ammonium chloride will react with sodium hydroxide to give off ammonia gas.

Physical

Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid, soluble in water.

Availability

Ammonium chloride can be found in many electronic stores, as soldering iron flux. It can also be found in some chimney cleaning products, where it tends to be mixed with other compounds, such as ammonium sulfate. Crystallization or sublimation can be used to extract and purify the compound.

Ammonium chloride is sold by various chemical suppliers.

Preparation

Reaction of hydrochloric acid with ammonia will result in ammonium chloride.

NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

If the reaction occurs in gaseous phase, a very fine mist of ammonium chloride will form.

Projects

  • Growing crystals
  • Making smoke bombs

Handling

Safety

Inhalation: Irritating to mucous membranes. Irritating to respiratory system.

Skin exposure: Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause dermatitis

Ingestion: Harmful if swallowed in large dosages. May cause nausea, vomiting and acidosis. In small dosages it can be consumed without ill effects.

Eyes contact: Irritating to eyes.

Storage

Store in a cool, dry, well ventilated place, in securely closed original container.

Disposal

Ammonium chloride solution could be poured down the drain or disposed in envniroment as fertilizer (In small quantities).

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads