Ammonium chloride

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Ammonium chloride
Lab grown crystals of ammonium chloride from Crystal grower's collection.
IUPAC name
Ammonium chloride
Systematic IUPAC name
Ammonium chloride
Other names
Sal ammoniac
Jmol-3D images Image
Molar mass 53.49 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor Odorless
Density 1.5274 g/cm3
Melting point 338 °C (640 °F; 611 K) (sublimes)
Boiling point 520 °C (968 °F; 793 K) (decomposition)
24.4 g/100 ml (−15 °C)
29.4 g/100 ml (0 °C)
38.3 g/100 ml (25 °C)
45.44 g/100 ml (40 °C)
74.08 g/100 ml (100 °C)
Solubility Soluble in alcohol, liq. ammonia, glycerol , hydrazine, methanol
Slightly soluble in acetone
Insoluble in diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, toluene, xylene
Solubility in acetic acid 0.067 g/100 g (16.6 °C)
Solubility in ethanol 0.6 g/100 ml (19 °C)
Solubility in glycerol 9.7 g/100 g
Solubility in methanol 3.2 g/100 g (17 °C)
3.35 g/100 g (19 °C)
3.54 g/100 g (25 °C)
Solubility in sulfur dioxide 0.009 g/100 g (0 °C)
0.0031 g/100 g (25 °C)
94.56 J·mol-1·K-1
−314.43 kJ/mol
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1,650 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Ammonium perchlorate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl. It is a white crystalline solid, highly soluble in water. Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic. Ammonium chloride occurs naturally as mineral Sal ammoniac which is commonly formed on burning coal dumps, due to condensation of coal-derived gases. It is also found around some types of volcanic vents. Ammonium chloride is mainly used as fertilizer and as a flavoring agent in some types of licorice.



Ammonium chloride, like all ammonium compounds, will react with bases, such as sodium hydroxide, to give off ammonia gas.

NH4Cl + NaOH → NH3 + NaCl


Ammonium chloride is a white crystalline solid, soluble in water.


Ammonium chloride can be found in many electronic stores, as soldering iron flux. It can also be found in some chimney cleaning products, where it tends to be mixed with other compounds, such as ammonium sulfate. Crystallization or sublimation can be used to extract and purify the compound.

Ammonium chloride can be bought online, from eBay or Amazon.

Lastly, ammonium chloride is sold by various chemical suppliers.


Reaction of hydrochloric acid with ammonia will result in ammonium chloride.

NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

If the reaction occurs in gaseous phase, a very fine mist of ammonium chloride will form.

Ammonium chloride may be prepared by a precipitation reaction, where an insoluble compound precipitates out, leaving ammonium chloride in solution. An example would be the reaction of calcium chloride with ammonium sulfate:

CaCl2 (aq) + (NH4)2SO4 (aq) → CaSO4 (s) + NH4Cl (aq)


  • Growing crystals
  • Making smoke bombs



Inhalation: Irritating to mucous membranes. Irritating to respiratory system.

Skin exposure: Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause dermatitis

Ingestion: Harmful if swallowed in large dosages. May cause nausea, vomiting and acidosis. In small dosages it can be consumed without ill effects.

Eyes contact: Irritating to eyes.


Store in a cool, dry, well ventilated place, in a securely closed original container. Keep it away from bases.


Ammonium chloride solution could be poured down the drain or dumped in the trash. While it can be disposed of in the environment as fertilizer, chloride ions are generally harmful to plants, making this salt of ammonium unsuitable to use as a nitrogen source for plants. Can be released in the environment in small quantities, in barren plains, or can also be used to affect weed growth.


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