Hydrazine

From Sciencemadness Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Hydrazine
Names
IUPAC name
Hydrazine
Systematic IUPAC name
Hydrazine
Other names
Diamine
Diazane
Tetrahydridodinitrogen(N—N)
Properties
N2H4
Molar mass 32.0452
Appearance Clear liquid
Density 1.014 g/cm3 (15 °C)
Melting point 2 °C (36 °F; 275 K)
Boiling point 114 °C (237 °F; 387 K)
Miscible
Solubility soluble in methanol, ethanol, propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohol
Acidity (pKa) 8.10
Hazards
Flash point 52 °C
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
59–60 mg/kg (oral in rats, mice)
260 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
630 ppm (rat, 1 hr)
570 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
252 ppm (mouse, 4 hr)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Ammonia
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula N2H4 or H2N-NH2. It is a toxic compound used as rocket fuel.

Properties

Chemical

Hydrazine, like ammonia, will form salts with acids. With sulfuric acid, for example, forms hydrazine sulfate.

N2H4 + H2SO4 → N2H5HSO4

Physical

Hydrazine is a clear fuming oily liquid, with a toxic strong ammonia like odor. It is miscible with water, and soluble in several solvents, like methanol or ethanol. Hydrazine boils at 114 °C and melts at 2 °C.

Availability

Anhydrous hydrazine is sold by chemical suppliers, though it's not easily available to the amateur chemist due to its hazards.

Preparation

Anhydrous hydrazine can be made by reacting hydrazine sulfate with a strong base, filter the reaction product and drying the resulting condensate. Avoid distilling the resulting hydrazine and it may explode.

Projects

Handling

Safety

Free hydrazine is extremely toxic and should only be handled with proper protection. It will slowly decompose to release nitrogen and ammonia. As a solution is less dangerous, though it's fumes are still very toxic. It may explode during its distillation in the presence of oxygen, due to its low autoignition point, so it's best to perform the distillation in an oxygen-free environment.

Due to these risks, the safest way to handle hydrazine is in the sulfate form.

Storage

While it can be stored in sealed or closed containers, the best way to store hydrazine is as the sulfate form. It can be easily liberated from this form with an alkali when or if needed.

Hydrazine will slowly leach silica from glass, so avoid storing it in glass containers. Type 304L and 347 stainless steel containers are generally used for storing hydrazine, though high density polyethylene is also suitable.[1]

Disposal

Hydrazine can be neutralized with a diluted solution of calcium hypochlorite. Avoid using strong oxidizers, like hydrogen peroxide, as this will result in a steam explosion.

References

  1. http://www.hydrazine.com/~/media/Microsites/Hydrazine/Docs/SafetyHandlingTDS.ashx?la=en

Relevant Sciencemadness threads