Lead(II) chloride

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Lead(II) chloride
Names
IUPAC name
Lead(II) chloride
Other names
Cotunnite
Lead dichloride
Plumbous chloride
Properties
PbCl2
Molar mass 278.10 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Odor Odorless
Density 5.85 g/cm3 (20 °C)
Melting point 501 °C (934 °F; 774 K)
Boiling point 950 °C (1,740 °F; 1,220 K)
0.673 g/100 ml (0 °C)
0.99 g/100 ml (20 °C)
3.34 g/100 ml (100 °C)
Solubility Slightly soluble in dil. hydrochloric acid, aq. ammonia
Insoluble in alcohols, carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons
Vapor pressure ~ 0 mmHg
Thermochemistry
135.98 J·K−1·mol−1
-359.41 kJ/mol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1.947 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Lead(II) iodide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Lead(II) chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula PbCl2.

Properties

Chemical

Addition of chloride ions to a suspension of PbCl2 gives rise to soluble complex ions.

PbCl2 reacts with molten sodium nitrite to give PbO:

PbCl2 + 3 NaNO2 → PbO + NaNO3 + 2 NO + 2 NaCl

If chlorine gas is bubbled through a saturated solution of PbCl2 with ammonium chloride, ammonium hexachloroplumbate [NH4]2[PbCl6] is obtained. If cold concentrated sulfuric acid is added to the solid compound, while maintaining the temperature around 0 °C, lead(IV) chloride (PbCl4) is obtained, as a clear oil.

Addition of sodium hypochlorite to lead(II) chloride will form lead(IV) oxide.

Lead(II) chloride is the main precursor for organometallic derivatives of lead, such as plumbocenes.

Physical

Lead(II) chloride is a white solid, slightly soluble in water.

Availability

Lead(II) chloride is sold by chemical suppliers.

PbCl2 occurs naturally in the form of the mineral cotunnite.

Preparation

Lead(II) chloride precipitates from solution upon addition of chloride sources (HCl, NaCl, KCl) to aqueous solutions of soluble lead(II) compounds:

Pb(NO3)2 + 2 NaCl → PbCl2 + 2 NaNO3
Pb(CH3COO)2 + HCl → PbCl2 + 2 CH3COOH

Addition of HCl to lead(II) carbonate will also produce lead(II) carbonate, although due to the low solubility of the lead chloride, this reaction is slow.

PbCO3 + 2 HCl → PbCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Addition of hydrochloric acid to lead oxides gives lead(II) chloride, and for lead(IV) oxide, chlorine gas is also produced:

PbO2 + 4 HCl → PbCl2 + Cl2 + 2 H2O
PbO + 2 HCl → PbCl2 + H2O

Chlorine gas will react with lead metal to form lead dichloride.

Pb + Cl2 → PbCl2

Projects

  • Make lead tetrachloride
  • Make Pattinson's white lead
  • Make plumbocenes
  • Mineral collecting

Handling

Safety

Like other lead containing compounds, exposure to PbCl2 will cause lead poisoning.

Storage

In closed plastic or glass bottles.

Disposal

Should be taken to hazardous waste disposal centers.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads