Barium nitrate

From Sciencemadness Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Barium nitrate
Names
IUPAC name
Barium nitrate
Systematic IUPAC name
Barium nitrate
Other names
Barium dinitrate
Identifiers
Jmol-3D images Image
Properties
Ba(NO3)2
Molar mass 261.337 g/mol
Appearance White hygroscopic solid
Density 3.24 g/cm3
Melting point 592 °C (1,098 °F; 865 K) (decomposes)
Boiling point Decomposes
4.95 g/100 mL (0 °C)
10.5 g/100 mL (25 °C)
34.4 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility Insoluble in alcohol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Sigma-Aldrich
Flash point Non-flamable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
187 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Barium nitrite
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Barium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula Ba(NO3)2, mainly used as an oxidizer.

Properties

Chemical

When heated at temperatures over 592 °C, barium nitrate decomposes to give off nitrogen dioxide fumes and oxygen:

Ba(NO3)2 → BaO + 2 NO2 + ½ O2

If barium nitrate is heated in an atmosphere of nitric oxide, barium nitrite (Ba(NO2)2) results:

Ba(NO3)2 + 2 NO → Ba(NO2)2 + 2 NO2

Physical

Barium nitrate is an odorless white hygroscopic solid, slightly soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols.

Availability

Barium nitrate can be found in many common sparklers. The sparkler paste consists of barium nitrate, aluminium + magnesium powders (sometimes iron), pressed together with a glue. The barium nitrate can be extracted by dissolving the sparkler paste with an organic solvent, followed by rinsing the resulting glue-free powder with COLD water. Do not use warm or hot water, as it will react with the magnesium and aluminium powder to form a gel which is a pain to remove. The barium nitrate solution is filtered and recrystallized.

Barium nitrate also occurs naturally as the rare mineral nitrobarite.

Preparation

Barium nitrate can be prepared by reacting barium oxide, hydroxide or carbonate with nitric acid and recrystallizing it from the resulting solution.

It can also be prepared by reacting barium chloride with sodium nitrate or silver nitrate, followed by filtering and recrystallizing the barium nitrate from the filtered solution.

Make sure that your nitrate source is very pure, as any sulfate present will cause the barium to precipitate out of the solution.

Projects

  • Make flash powders
  • Thermite booster
  • Make Thermate-TH3
  • Make Baratol

Handling

Safety

Barium nitrate is a strong oxidizer and will ignite many combustible materials if heated with an open flame.

Barium nitrate is somewhat soluble in water, which makes it toxic. Solutions of soluble sulfate salts, such as Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate) or sodium sulfate may be given as first aid for barium poisoning, as they precipitate the soluble barium to the insoluble (and non-toxic) barium sulfate.

Storage

Barium nitrate should be stored in closed bottles, away from moisture and flammable materials as well as acidic vapors. A glass or plastic bottle with cap is good enough.

Disposal

Barium nitrate should be converted to the less toxic barium sulfate and dumped in trash.

References

Relevant Sciencemadness threads