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Anhydrous LiCl in a tube.
| IUPAC name
| Preferred IUPAC name
| Other names
|Molar mass||42.39 g/mol|
|Melting point||613 °C (1,135 °F; 886 K)|
|Boiling point||1,382 °C (2,520 °F; 1,655 K)|
| 68.29 g/100 ml (0 °C)|
74.48 g/100 ml (10 °C)
84.25 g/100 ml (25 °C)
88.7 g/100 ml (40 °C)
123.44 g/100 ml (100 °C)
|Solubility||Soluble in acetone, butanol, diethyl ether, ethanol, hydrazine, methanol, methylformamide, nitrobenzene, propanol, pyridine, selenium oxychloride|
|Solubility in acetone|| 1.2 g/100 g (20 °C)|
0.83 g/100 g (25 °C)
0.61 g/100 g (50 °C)
|Solubility in ammonia|| 0.54 g/100 g (-34 °C)|
3.02 g/100 g (25 °C)
|Solubility in ethanol|| 14.42 g/100 g (0 °C)|
24.28 g/100 g (20 °C)
25.1 g/100 g (30 °C)
23.46 g/100 g (60 °C)
|Solubility in formic acid|| 26.6 g/100 g (18 °C)|
27.5 g/100 g (25 °C)
|Solubility in methanol|| 45.2 g/100 g (0 °C)|
43.8 g/100 g (20 °C)
42.36 g/100 g (25 °C)
44.6 g/100 g (60 °C)
|Vapor pressure|| 1 torr (785 °C)|
10 torr (934 °C)
100 torr (1130 °C)
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||Sigma-Aldrich|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
|526 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Lithium chloride is an ionic salt of lithium with the chemical formula LiCl.
- LiCl + AgNO3 → LiNO3 + AgCl
- 2 LiCl + Pb(NO3)2 → 2 LiNO3 + PbCl2
Lithium chloride is also used as a flame colorant to produce dark red flames.
Lithium is a white hygroscopic solid compound, soluble in water and many other solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol, formic acid, N-Methylformamide, hydrazine, THF, although it is poorly soluble in acetone and ammonia. LiCl is completely insoluble in dichloromethane. Lithium chloride has a melting point at around 614 °C.
Lithium chloride is sometimes sold as acaricid, for use against varroosis in honey bee colonies.
Lithium chloride can be purchased from chemical suppliers. ScienceCompany sells 100 g of LiCl at $18.95.
It can also be found on eBay and Amazon.
Although lithium chloride can be prepared by reacting lithium metal with hydrochloric acid or chlorine gas, this method is both uneconomical and extremely dangerous, as it consumes the expensive metal.
- 2 Li + 2 HCl → 2 LiCl + H2
- 2 Li + Cl2 → 2 LiCl
LiCl is much better prepared by reacting lithium carbonate with HCl.
- Li2CO3 + 2 HCl → 2 LiCl + H2 + CO2
Completely dead lithium batteries are a good source of lithium carbonate. Lithium chloride can be dried to its anhydrous form by heating it in a stream of hydrogen chloride. Heating it without hydrogen chloride will cause it to partially hydrolyze.
Lithium oxide or hydroxide can also be used, but significant heat will be generated.
- Make lithium metal
- Make lithium compounds
- Make red flame
- Precipitate RNA from cellular extracts
Lithium chloride affects the nervous system, so it should not be used as a salt substitute.
Lithium chloride is hygroscopic and must be stored in an airtight container (if you don't want to use its hydrated form).
As lithium compounds can be hard to come by, they are best recycled.