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A laboratory or lab is a facility and/or workroom that provides controlled conditions for scientific or technological research, experiments, analysis or measurement, either professional or amateur. Laboratories are generally well defined places, separate from other chambers, with specific guidelines and requirements.
The most important lab equipment are:
Every lab requires a weighing scale, a thermometer and a source of heat.
Although once commonplace, an open flame for a heat source has largely been replaced by the hotplate and stirrer combination, mostly due to ease-of-use, secondly due to the reduced explosion hazard with volatile chemicals.
A source of cooling water is needed for reflux operations, which can be supplied by normal tap water or a bucket and pump arrangement.
A well equipped lab will have a vacuum pump of some nature, possibly a simple Venturi type, right up to a multi-stage purpose-build pump.
By far the most common laboratory glassware is the humble test tube.
Next are all sorts of glass containers, ranging from simple bottles, through beakers, conical flasks, round flasks, even long-necked quantitative measuring flasks.
Probably the most iconic lab glassware is the distillation apparatus, consisting of a boiling flask and a condenser, of which there are many types.
Corrosive or hazardous products that cannot be properly neutralized quickly, contain valuable or toxic metal ions or require special disposal are to be stored in chemical resistant bottles, generally in a ventilated area.
Starting a lab
First, one will need to choose a place generally away from dwelling space. A shed is a good choice, as it offers natural ventilation which prevents the build-up of flammable vapors and toxic compounds.
Working in a lab involves various risks, ranging from workplace injuries to exposure to various dangerous reagents.
The lowest level of PPE required are eye protection, gloves and protective clothing.
Beyond these measures, a positive pressure suit and/or radiation protection could be required for extremely dangerous work.